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干货汇总|初中英语必会的60组重点单词/短语/句型用法大整合

来源:卓越教育
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同学们经常会遇到这样的情况,明明记了很多单词、短语和句型,分数却迟迟提不上来。这是因为记住了不等于会用,只有会用的时候,才说明真正掌握了一个单词或词组,才能在考试中游刃有余!

1. cost / take / spend / pay 花费


花费时间做某事 :

It takes sb some time to do sth . = sb spend some time (in)doing sth .= sb spend some time on sth .


某人花钱买某物 :

sb spend some money on sth .= sb pay some money for sth.= sth cost sb . some money .


注意:

⑴ cost 和 pay 只指花费钱,take 只指花费时间,spend 可以指花费钱也可以指花费时间。

⑵ spend 和 pay 主语都是人, cost 主语是物,take 一般用于 It takes sb some time to do sth. 句型中。


2. thanks for 为…...而感谢


Thanks for inviting me to your birthday party .

谢谢你邀请我来你的生日聚会。


thanks to 多亏/由于


Thanks to your help. I got good grades .

幸亏你的帮助,我才取得好成绩。


3. 多么…...


what + 名词;how + 形容词/ 副词


What bad weather !多么糟糕的天气啊!

How hard he works ! 他工作多么努力啊!

What fresh vegetables ! 多么新鲜的蔬菜啊!

How cute a monkey it is ! 它是一只多么可爱的猴子啊!


4 . 因为......;由于......


because(连词)+从句

because of(介词短语)+ 名词(短语)


I didn’t go to school because I had a headache.

因为我头疼,所以我没去上学。

He was late for class because of the bad weather .

由于糟糕的天气,他上课迟到了。


注意:because和 so不能同时连用 。


5 . 来自


be from = come from


Where are you from ? = Where do you come from?

你来自哪里?


6 . How often 多久一次(对频率提问)

How long 多久(对一段时间提问)

How soon多久以后 (对将来时间提问)

How far 多长(询问多长距离)


— How long have you been collecting the kites ?

你收集风筝多长时间了?

—For ten years. 

十年了。


— How often do you go shopping ?

你多久购物一次? 

—Sometimes.

有时。


— How soon will your father come back ?

你爸爸多久以后回来?

—In two years.两

年后。


— How far is it from your home to school ?

从你家到学校多远?

—About ten miles.

大概十英里。


7 . 乘坐交通工具


take a / the +交通工具

by+交通工具=on a 交通工具

交通工具有:train/bus/car/taxi/boat/subway/plane...


He takes a bus to bank.= He goes to bank by bus.

他乘坐公共汽车去银行。


注意:骑自行车、马或驴用ride

ride one’s bike / ride a horse / ride a donkey


8 . 对不起


Excuse me (劳驾,客套话)

Sorry (表示道歉)


Excuse me. Where is Tianfu Square in Chengdu ?

打扰一下,成都的天府广场在哪里?


—Don’t eat in class.

不要在课堂上吃东西。

—Sorry. Ms Clark .

对不起,Clark小姐。


9 . 声音


sound (自然界的各种声音)

noise(噪音)

voice(人的嗓音)


Lucy has a sweet voice.

露西有甜美的嗓音。

Don’t make noise.

不要制造噪音。


10. 像......


look like (外貌看起来像… )

be like (性格像… )


—Lily look like Lucy .

莉莉长得像露西。

—Oh , they are twins.

哦,她们是双胞胎。


Tony is like a monkey because he is cute and playful .

托尼像只猴子,因为他可爱又爱玩耍。


11. 拿, 带


take… to … 带去

bring…to …带来

fetch 取来 (强调一个来回)


Tony , fetch the ball here. Please.

托尼,请把那个球取来。

My father often takes me to concerts on Sundays.

周日,爸爸经常带我去听音乐会。

Bring your homework to school tomorrow.

明天,把你的作业带到学校来。


12. 一些


some 用于肯定句

any 用于否定句和疑问句


I’d like some milk.


—Would you like some yogurt ?

你想要一些酸奶吗?

—Thanks . I don’t want any.

谢谢,不用了。


注意:在一般疑问句中,认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到对方肯定回答时,也用some。


13. 多少


How many修饰可数名词复数

How much 修饰不可数名词


How much juice do you want ?

你想要多少果汁?

How many apples do you want ?

你想要多少苹果?


注意:How much可对价钱提问:


How much are the potatoes ?

这些土豆多少钱?


14. 看


see 强调看的结果

look (at )不及物动词,强调看的动作

watch 观看(带有观赏性质)

read 读,朗读:看书、看报、看信、看杂志


Don’t read in bed.

不要在床上看书。

We will watch a basketball game this evening.

今天晚上,我们将去看一场篮球比赛。

Please look at the blackboard. Everyone.

大家请看黑板。

I saw a bird in the tree yesterday.

昨天,我看到一只鸟在树上。


15. 停止做某事


stop doing sth 停止正在做的事

stop to do sth 停下来去做别的事


The girl soon stopped crying.

这个女孩不久就不哭了。

He was tired and stopped to have a rest.

他很累,停下来休息一下。


16. forget/remember


forget / remember to do sth:忘记/记得去做某事(未做)

forget/remember doing sth:忘记/记得做过某事(做过)


He forgot to turn off the light.

他忘记关灯了。(未关)

Remember to go to the post office after school.

记得放学后去邮局。(未去)

He forgot turning off the light.

他忘记关了灯。(已关)

Don’t you remember seeing the man before ?

难道你不记得之前见过这个人吗?(见过)


17. 到达…...


reach + 地点

get to + 地点

arrive + in + 大地点

arrive + at + 小地点


He reached London yesterday.= He got to London yesterday.=He arrived in London yesterday.

他昨天到的伦敦。

She arrived at the bus station just now.

她刚才到达了公交站。

You should get home on time.

你应该按时到家。


注意:当get和arrive后接地点副词时,都不加介词。如:get home/there 等。


18. 擅长,在…...方面做得好


be good at = do well in


She is good at chemistry.=She does well in chemistry.

她擅长化学。

Niuniu is good at playing the violin.=Niuniu _does well in playing the violin.

妞妞擅长弹钢琴。

Lucy and Lily are twin girls . Lucy is better at dancing than Lily , but Lily does better in singing than Lucy.

露西和莉莉是一对双胞胎姐妹。露西比莉莉擅长跳舞,但是莉莉在唱歌方面做得比露西好。


19. 赢得,打败


win (赢得)后接a game、war 、a match、a prize等。

beat(打败、战胜)后接运动员、球队、对手等。


Which team won the football match ?

哪个队赢了这场足球比赛?

Wang Hao beat Ma Lin and won the champion of the Men’s Singles.

王浩打败了马林,赢得了男子单打冠军。


20. 借


borrow sth. from sb = borrow sb. sth 向某人借某物(借入)

lend sth. to sb = lend sb. sth把某物借给某人(借出)

keep延续性动词,与一段时间连用。


Can you lend me your bike ?= Can you lend your bike to me ?

你能把自行车借给我吗?

You can borrow some money from your brother.=You can borrow your brother some money.

你可以向你的兄弟借一些钱。

—How long can I keep the book ?

我可以借这本书多久?

—You can keep it for two weeks.

你可以借两周。


21. 能,会:be able to, can


I can play the guitar.

我会弹吉他。

He is able to play chess.

他会下象棋。


注意:情态动词后面都接动词原形。


22. 太多......;太......


too many 太多, 修饰可数名词复数

too much 太多,修饰不可数名词

much too太, 后跟形容词或副词原级


There are too many students in the hallways. It’s dangerous.

走廊里有太多学生。很危险。

I had too much bread for breakfast.

我早饭吃了多面包。

This coat is much too expensive.

这件大衣太贵了。


23. 去过/去了某地


have / has been to 去过某地

have / has gone to 去了某地


He has been to Beijing.

他去过北京。(现在已不在北京)

He has gone to Beijing. 

他去了北京。(在去北京的途中或已到北京)


24. 关于use 的三个句型


used to do sth.过去常做某事

be(get)used to doing sth.习惯于做某事

be used to do sth = be used for doing sth. 被用于做某事


This river used to be very clean .

这条河过去非常干净。

I’m not used to getting up early.

我不习惯早起。

Pens are used for writing.

钢笔被用来写字。


25. 属于......


belong to + 名词/人称代词宾格(属于)

be + 名词所有格/ 名词性物主代词(是)


It must be Ning’s.= It must belong to Ning.

它一定是宁的。

The pencil must be mine.= The pencil must belong to me.

这支铅笔一定是我的。


26. can’t 不可能: must(一定)反义词


The CD must belong to Tony, because he likes listening to music.

这张CD一定是托尼的,因为他喜欢听音乐。

The toy can't be my grandpa's . After all,he is an old man.

这个玩具不可能是我爷爷的。毕竟,他是一个老人。


27. 由…...制成


be made from:由…...制成(看不出原材料)

be made of:由…...制成(看得出原材料)


The table is made of wood.

这张桌子是用木材做的。

Paper is made from wood.

纸是用木材做的。


28. 更喜欢......


prefer to do/doing sth 更喜欢做某事

prefer sth to sth 比起......来,更喜欢......

prefer doing sth to doing sth 比起做......来,更喜欢做......


I prefer swiming to playing balls.

比起打球来,我更喜欢游泳。

He prefers fish to beef.

比起牛肉来,他更喜欢鱼。

I prefer to walk to work.

我更喜欢走路去上班。


29. 一些表示人的情感或情绪的形容词


—ed 修饰人

—ing 修饰物


interesting:有趣的; interested:感兴趣的

tiring:累人的; tired;累的,疲倦的

boring:令人无聊的;bored:无聊的

exciting:令人兴奋的;excited:激动的

surprising:令人惊讶的; surprised:惊讶的

relaxing:令人放松的; relaxed:放松的

embarrassing:令人尴尬的;令人为难的;embarrassed:尴尬的;为难的


She is interested in this interesting history story.

她对这个有趣的历史故事很感兴趣。


30. 关于 number 的两个短语


the number of + 名词复数:…...的数量(作主语时,谓语用单数)

a number of + 名词复数:许多、一些= many (作主语时,谓语用复数)


The number of students in our class is 80.

我们班学生的数量是八十人。

A number of students are in Helin Middle School.

很多学生在鹤林中学。

31. 与现在完成时连用的两个时间状语


for + 一段时间

since + 时间点/一般过去时的句子


We have been studying English for three years.

我们三年来一直在学习英语。

He has been staying here since he was five years old.

自从五岁以来,他一直待在这里。

We haven’t seen each other since ten years ago.

自从十年前以来,我们一直没有见过彼此。


注意:for和 since 可以相互转换。

Jenny has been collecting coins for several years. = Jenny has been collecting coins since several years ago.

珍妮收集硬币已经有几年的时间了。


32. 除...…之外


except (不包括在内)

besides (包括在内)


Everyone could answer this question except Jim.

除了吉姆,大家都能够回答这个问题。

There are three girls besides me.

除了我之外,还有三个女孩。


33. 已经


already 用于肯定句中

yet 用于否定句和疑问句末


Have you seen the film yet?

你看过这部电影了吗?

I haven’t locked the door yet.

我还没有锁门。

Mom has already watered the flowers.

妈妈已经浇花了。


34. 否定祈使句


Don’t do sth.=No + doing / n.


Don’t smoke here.= No smoking here.

这里禁止吸烟。

Don’t take photos.= No photos.

禁止拍照。


35. 也


too 放肯定句末和疑问句末

either 放否定句末

also 放肯定句中


She is a girl. I am a girl , too.

她是个女孩。我也是女孩。

Do you play soccer every day ,too?

你也每天都踢足球吗?

He also likes collecting things.

他也喜欢收集东西。


注意:also放在实意动词前,be之后.


36. 要求严格


be strict with sb. 对某人要求严格

be strict in sth. 对某事要求严格


Miss Zhang is strict in her work and she is strict with her students.

张老师对自己的工作要求严格,对她的学生要求严格。


37. 需要做某事


need to do sth 主语是人

need doing sth 主语是物(主动形式表被动含义)


The classroom needs cleaning. It’s too dirty.

教室需要被打扫,太脏了。

Children need to sleep a lot.

孩子们需要很多睡眠。


38. 穿过


through:介词(从内部穿过)

across:介词(从表面穿过)

cross :动词(从表面穿过)


Be careful when you cross the street.

过街的时候要小心。

The man went through the forest.

这个男人穿过了森林。

He swam across the river.

他游过了河。


39. 表建议的句型


Why don’t you do sth = Why not do sth? 为什么不......?

How /what about doing sth? 做......怎么样?

Let’s do sth. 让我们......


Why don’t you have a cup of tea ?=Why not have a cup of tea ?

为什么不喝一杯茶呢?

Let’s go out for a walk.

让我们出去散步吧。

How about practice conversations ?

练习对话怎么样?


40. so 和 neither 的倒装句


So + 助/系/情态+ 主语表示肯定意义(…...也是如此)

Neither + 助/系/情态+ 主语表示否定意义(…...也不)


My mother didn’t go to school. Neither did my father.

妈妈没上过学,爸爸也没上过。

James comes from the USA . So does Tom.

詹姆斯来自美国。汤姆也是。

My pen pal can speak Japanese. So can I.

我的笔友会说日语。 我也会。

My sister isn’t outgoing. Neither am I.

我的姐姐不外向,我也不外向。


41. 都


both 两者都

all三者或三者以上都


The twins both are good students.

这对双胞胎都是好学生。

There are lots of colorful flowers on two sides of the streets.

在街道两边有很多五颜六色的话。

There are five people in my family. We all like playing sports. My parents both love us. We are very happy.

我们家有五个人。我们都喜欢运动。父母都很爱我们。我们都很快乐。


42. alone / lonely


alone 单独,独自一人

lonely 孤独的,寂寞的(有一定的感情色彩)


He is alone at home.

他独自一人在家。

He lives a lonely life in the country.

他在这个国家过着孤独的生活。


43. in/on the tree

in the tree 外来的

on the tree 长在树上的


I saw a cat in the tree.

我看到树上有只猫

There are many apples on the tree.

树上有很多苹果。


44. in/on the wall

in the wall 指在墙体内

on the wall 指在墙体表面


There is a map on the wall.

墙上有一张地图。

There is a door in the wall.

墙上嵌着一道门。


45. on/in the bed

on the bed 指物品在床上

in bed 指人躺在床上


My bag is on the bed.

我的包在床上。

Lily is ill in bed.

莉莉躺在床上。


46. 如此…...以至于...…


so/such...that... 如此......以至于......(that引导结果状语从句)

so是副词,后接形容词或副词

such是形容词,后接名词


Tom is such a clever boy that he can answer the question.= Tom is so clever a boy that he can answer the question.

汤姆如此聪明,以至于他能够回答这个问题。

The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it.

这个箱子如此重,以至于我搬不动它。


注意:在名词前有many / much / few / little这些词修饰时,要用so…that... 。


47. 当......的时候


when + 延续性/短暂性动词

while+延续性动词(多用进行时)


When I was watching TV , he came in.

= When he came in , I was watching TV.

While I was in Shanghai ,I visited him .


48. at the age of 和when 引导的时间状语可以互换


I began to play football when I was five years old .

= I began to play football at the age of five.

我五岁时开始踢足球。


49. instead/instead of


instead:相反( 放句首、句末)

instead of + 名词/代词/动名词:代替;而不是


I will go to see her instead of you.

我会代替你去看她。

We often sing English song instead of reading aloud.

我们经常唱英语歌而不是大声朗读。

He doesn’t like beer. Give him coke instead.

他不喜欢啤酒。给他可乐吧。


50. be famous as/for

be famous as: 作为…...而知名

be famous for: 因...…而著名


Li Bai is famous as a poet.

李白作为诗人而知名。

Hangzhou is famous for the West Lake.

杭州因西湖而著名。


51. 看起来好像...…


sb/sth seems to do sth

It seems that +从句


It seems that he feels very sad.= He seems to feel very sad.

他看上去感觉很悲伤。

She seems to want to have a drink.= It seems that she wants to have a drink.

她看上去想喝杯饮料。


52. “疑问词+ 动词不定式” 与“宾语从句”的互换


I will show you where you should go.= I will show you where to go.

我会告诉你你应该去哪里。

Could you tell me how I can get to Summer Palace?= Could you tell me how to get to Summer Palace ?

你能告诉我如何到达颐和园吗?


注意:宾语从句应该用陈述语序。


53. question/problem


question: 由于疑惑不解而提出的问题,多和ask / answer搭配使用。

problem:指有待解决的较难的问题或物理/数学方面的题等,多与solve / work out 搭配.


Please answer my question in English.

请用英语回答我的问题。

I can’t work out this maths problem.

我不能解决这道数学题。


54. family/home/house


family: 家/家庭(强调家庭成员,与居住的房子无关)

home 家(指人出生或居住的地方,带有一定感情色彩)

house 房子/住宅(居住的建筑物)


My family are kind.

我的家人很善良。

Welcome to my home.

欢迎来到我家。

They moved to their new house last year.

他们去年搬到了新家。


55. in front of/in the front of


in front of:在某一范围以外的前面

in the front of:在某一范围内的前面


There is a tall tree in front of our classroom.

我们教室前有一棵高大的树。

Two persons are sitting in the front of the car.

两个人坐在汽车的前部。


56. 在晚上,在夜里


at night

on + a + adj + night(在具体的晚上用介词 on)


You shouldn’t go out at night.

你不应该晚上出去。

He met a thief on a cold night.

在一个寒冷的晚上,他遇到了一个小偷。


57. 在…之间


between:两者之间,多与and连用.

among:三者或三者以上的人或物之间


She is sitting betwwen Lucy and Lily.

她坐在露西和莉莉之间。

He built a house among the trees.

他在树林中建了一所房子。


58. sometimes/some times/sometime/some time


sometimes:不时;有时

some times:几次

sometime: 某个时间

some time:一段时间


Sometimes I go to school by bus.

我有时乘公交车去上学。

He has been to Shanghai some times.

他去过上海几次。

I saw him sometime last year.

去年,我某个时间加过他。

He will stay here for some time.

他会在这里待一段时间。


59. 穿


wear+ 衣服/鞋帽/眼镜等(强调状态)

put on +衣服/鞋帽/眼镜等(强调动作)

be in + 颜色/服饰(强调状态)

dress + 人/反身代词(给某人穿)


Our teacher often wears a pair of glasses.

我们老师经常戴眼镜。

Kate puts on her hat and goes out.

凯特戴上帽子出去了。

The girl in red is my sister.

这个穿红衣服的女孩是我姐姐。

She dresses her daughter every morning.

她每天早晨给她女儿穿衣服。


注意:dress当表示状态时常用be dressed in + 衣物(穿着…颜色的衣服)

He is dressed in a black coat.

穿着黑色的外套。


60. play


play + 球类、棋类名词(不加the )

play the +西洋乐器名词(必须加the)

play badminton 打羽毛球

play chess 下象棋

play computer games 玩电脑游戏

play the violin 拉小提琴


注意:

play the +中国乐器名词(加不加 the 都可以 )

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